Kanpur was an important garrison town for the East India Company, located on the Grand Trunk Road. In June 1857, about 1,000 British troops, their families and loyal sepoys were besieged by Indian forces for three weeks. On June 25, the British surrendered in return for a safe passage to Allahabad. However, as they were departing they were attacked. Many British men, women and children lost their lives.
When the East India Company forces recaptured Cawnpore, there was bloody retribution. After the revolt was suppressed, the British dismantled Bibighar and raised a memorial railing and cross at the site of the well. The memorial was designed by Henry Yule and built by Baron Carlo Marochetti in 1860. Marochetti was also the sculptor of the central angel statue.
After Indian independence in 1947, the British moved the well monument and leveled the site. The marble gothic screen with mournful seraph statue was relocated to the Memorial Garden at All Souls' Memorial Church. Remains of the circular ridge of the well can still be seen at the Nana Rao Park
The soil of Kanpur is still telling the story of the British rule. The Gora Kabristan (Court Cemetery) present in VIP Road reminds of the British rule. In 1750s, the English forces started building Cawnpore cantonment. The burial place for the city was marked on the banks of river Ganges and was known as Court Cemetery.
According to the evidence found so far, Colonel Jan Stan Forth was first buried here in 1781. There are many monuments in the cemetery, about which information has not been known yet, it may be even earlier. Presently there are 1200 graves including the grave of Brigadier General Walter Alex, Commander General Sir John Hasford Knight.
This site is protected by the Archaeological Department and the office of the Archaeological Survey of India, Kanpur is also located at this place.
Ordnance Equipment Factory Kanpur (OEFC) is one of the oldest equipment manufacturing units among 41 Ordnance Factories functioning under Ordnance Factory Board, Kolkata (Ministry of Defence), Government of India. Ordnance Equipment Factory Kanpur is situated on the bank of the holy river Ganga, 4 Kms from the Kanpur Central Railway Station. The Factory was established in the year 1859 as Government Harness & Saddlery Factory for repair and fabrication of Harness and Saddlery items for British troops on the recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army when the private contractors repeatedly failed to supply items as per the Army's requirement.OEFC 3 diversified activities in distinct technologies are:1.Leather
The factory situated on the bank of Holy river Ganga in the area of 30 Hectares. The total area of Estates is 66 Hectares.
In 1857, the bugle of revolution was ringing all over the country for the independence of the country. Sattichora Ghat became immortal in the pages of history by witnessing the death of 300 Britishers in this episode. This ghat had turned red with the blood of the British spilled by the bullets of the rebel soldiers. After this incident, the British named it Massacre Ghat and it became Nanarao Ghat in independent India.
The bugle of rebellion rang in Kanpur on June 4, 1857. The rebel soldiers looted the treasury and set fire to several bungalows. Raising the slogan of Delhi Chalo, the rebel soldiers marched towards Kalyanpur. Nana Saheb and Azimullah Khan brought back the rebel soldiers and surrounded the cantonment by saying that Kanpur should be freed from the British. The siege lasted until 26 June, after which the then General H Wheeler and Collector Hilderson offered a settlement. It was decided that if the British vacate the fort overnight, they would be given a safe way to go to Allahabad (now Prayagraj).
Nana ordered Samadhan Nishad to prepare boats. On the morning of 27 June, 40 boats were set up at Sattichora Ghat. Thousands of people along with the rebel soldiers were present at Sattichora Ghat to witness this scene. The British boarded the boats with the women and children. The boats moved forward, meanwhile there was a conch shell. Understanding this as a bugle of rebellion, some sailors jumped into the Ganges.
The British were already scared, so they started firing on the sailors. On the other hand, the rebel soldiers standing on the ghat also started firing in response. This is such an incident which was unplanned, which Nana Saheb instructed to stop by sending a messenger. Following his instructions, 200 British women and children were rescued and kept in Savada Kothi.
The revolutionaries of Kanpur have made immense contribution in the freedom of the country. Kanpur city is still decorated with the memories of revolution. One of these, SavadaKothi, built near COD Bridge on GT Road, had its own importance before the revolution of 1857. Before independence, this Kothi was the circuit house of Kanpur. The Nawabs of Awadh, Wazirs and those under the British Government used to stay here whenever they came to Kanpur. Kothi was also a bastion of political visitors.
n the year 1830, the Wazir of Awadh, Nawab Motmuddaula Akarbir was relieved of his post by the British. After this he made Savada Kothi of Kanpur his abode. When Lord William Banting came to India in the year 1832, he also met Nawab Naseeruddin Haider of Awadh in this Kothi. When Lord Auckland came to Kanpur in the year 1837, he stayed at Sawada Kothi and met Nawab Muhammad Ali Shah of Lucknow at Subedar Talab. During the revolution of 1857, rebel soldiers started their activities against the British rule, and then Savada Kothi was occupied by the revolutionaries from June 6 to July 17. Nana Saheb Peshwa had made this Kothi his headquarters.
Wheeler's fortifications were monitored from here. The British women and children who survived after the incident at Sattichora Ghat on 27th June were brought and kept in this Kothi on the first day. In July 1857, on the instructions of Commander-in-Chief Anson of the British Government, General Havelock from Allahabad (now Prayagraj) went with the English army to suppress the rebels in Kanpur, and then the English army was monitored from Savada Kothi. When the English army regained control over Kanpur, they destroyed Savada Kothi in anger. Later a memorial pillar was made on the demolished Savada Kothi. Presently there is War Memorial Colony of Defense Department.
The Kanpur Memorial Church, originally known as the All Souls' Church, is a church located in Kanpur, India that belongs to the Church of North India, a united Protestant denomination. It was built in 1875 in memory of lives lost during the Siege of Cawnpore in 1857.
The church is situated on Albert Lane near Cawnpore Club in Kanpur Cantonment. It is situated in the heart of the cantonment.
The church was designed by Walter Granville, architect of the East Bengal Railways. The complete church in Lombardic Gothic style is attractively executed in bright red brick with polychrome dressings. To the east of the church is the memorial garden which can only be approached through one gateway. It has a handsome carved Gothic screen designed by Henry Yule. Its centre is occupied by a beautiful carved figure of an angel by Baron Carlo Marochetti, with crossed arms, holding palons, i.e. symbols of peace. This carved figure was created in memory of the Bibighar massacre, where approximately 200 unarmed European women and children lost their lives.
It is believed that this city was founded by Raja Hindu Singh of the Sankandi state. Kanpur’s original name was Kanhpur. Whether it is suspected to be associated with the King Hindusi of the realty of the origin of the city, or belonging to the heroic Karna of Mahabharata period, it is so certified that in the last phase of the reign of Awadh, this city is situated in old Kanpur, Patkapura, Kuraswam, Juhi and Seemamau villages. Kanpur’s history was insignificant until 18th century as it survived in a small village with no importance. But all changed when the Nawab Wazir of Awadh was defeated by British and after the Treaty of 1773, the city came under the rule of the British, resulting in an English camp here in 1778 AD. It was time when British used Kanpur to serve as their military and administrative base. it became a district in the year 1803. At this time Kanpur got the name “Cawnpore” from British.During the war of Independence. At the outbreak of 1857 revolt, Kanpur was an important place because of freedom fighters like Nana sahib and his close associates Tantya Tope and Azimullah Khan. Cawnpore witnessed three main events at that time “wheeler’s entrenchment”, the “massacre of Sati Chaura Ghat”, and the “Bibighar massacre”.After witnessing the revolt of 1857, a phenomenal change happened with the establishment of “Government Harness and Saddler Factory” (OEFC) for supplying leather for military. Slowly cotton mills, leather factories started and gave a way to beginning of a new era.
KANPUR CANTONMENT Kanpur Cantonment (popularly referred to as Kanpur Cantt) is a military cantonment in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. The Kanpur Cantonment was established in the year 1811 and is situated on the right bank of river Ganges and is bound by Kanpur city area on the remaining three sides. Kanpur Cantonment is the largest cantonment in India, both by area and population. The area of the Cantonment is approx. 4243.0084 acres (17 km2) out of which the Bungalow Area is 3899.1784 acres and the Civil Area is 334.83 acres.
As per 2011 Census, the population of Cantonment is 108,035 which is 453rd largest city of India.KANPUR GOVERNMENT. Presently, the cantonment is governed by the Cantonments Act, 2006 and various policy letters and instructions of the Government of India, (Ministry of Defence) issued from time to time. Though the Board functions as a local self -govt, yet it is under the administrative control of Director General, Defence Estates (Min of Defence ) at New Delhi and Principal Director, Defence Estates, Central Command, Lucknow.